Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Two hypotheses, stimulus-response and stimulus-stimulus theories, explain the working of classical conditioning. Stimulus-response holds that a link to unconditioned stimuli is created with conditioned stimulus in the brain however, conscious consideration is not involved. Secondly, stimulus-stimulus has to do with mental activity, whereby conditioned stimuli are linked to the unconditioned stimuli notion.Stimulus-response (S-R) theory involves a behavioral psychology hypothetical structure which argues that man plus other creatures may be taught to link a novel stimulus (conditioned stimulus- CS)with some pre-existing stimulus (unconditioned stimulus- US), and may feel, respond, or feel the CS as though it were really the US. It argues that animals may be taught to link some SR, like a bell, to upcoming entrance of foodstuffs, leading to some apparent behavior, like salivating (http://psychology.about. com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond. htm). Stimulus-stimulus (S-S) theory arg ues that some cognitive element is required to comprehend classical conditioning. It argues that animals may salivate after the bell since it is linked to th3e food concept. Operant Conditioning Theory Operant conditioning involves using effects to alter the type and happening of conduct. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that the former tackles alteration of intentional (operant) conduct.Operant behavior functions within the environment; it is controlled by its effects. On the other hand, classical conditioning tackles the habituation of respondent conducts that are drawn out by precursor situations. Conducts conditioned through classical conditioning process are not controlled by effects. Punishment and reinforcement may be negative (removed after a reaction) or positive (given after a reaction), thus creating 4 basic effects, the fifth being extinction (no consequence alteration after a reaction).Reinforcement consequence increases the frequency of occur rence of behavior. Punishment consequence decreases the frequency of occurrence of behavior. Extinction signifies absence of effects. If behavior proves inconsequential, having neither unfavorable nor favorable effects, it occurrence becomes less frequent. If previously strengthened conduct ceases to be strengthened negatively or positively, the reaction reduces. Positive reinforcement happens when a constructive stimulus follows a conduct, thus increasing the frequency of the conduct.Negative reinforcement happens when the withdrawal of aversive stimuli follows a conduct, thus increasing the frequency of the conduct. Positive punishment (punishment through conditional stimulation) happens when a negative stimulus follows a conduct. Negative punishment (punishment through conditional withdrawal) happens when the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus follows a reaction or behavior. Social cognitive theory It suggests that parts of a persons knowledge gaining may be directly linked to wat ching other persons through social contact, experiences, plus external media pressures.It remains a knowledge hypothesis that argues that persons learn through observing the activities of others plus that individual though procedures are vital in comprehending personality. Despite the fact that the learned conduct obtained from the surroundings persons grow up in significantly influences development, cognition equally influence ethical development. Persons learn though watching others as mediated by the surroundings, cognition, and behavior. Social cognitive theory stresses a huge disparity between a personÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to exhibit moral competence and performance.Moral competence refers to possession of the capacity to depict ethical behavior. Moral performance refers to adhering to individual moral behavior ideas in particular circumstances. The theory emphasizes learning or knowledge gaining though watching models. Observers do not anticipate punishments or rewards; rather, t hey anticipate similar results to their imitated conduct. Within education, instructors act as models in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge acquisition. Learning most probably happens when an observer-model intimate identification occurs and when observers have adequate self-efficacy beliefs.Such beliefs act as vital proximal factors for human effect, action, and motivation, which control action by cognitive, effective, and motivational intervening procedures. Identification permits observers to sense a one-on-one linkage with the model. Observer are thus more probable to attain such replications if they feel they have the capacity to adhere to the imitate actions. Considering many factors (cognitive, social, and environmental) is the simplest way of displaying ethical development. The inter-linkage of such factors offers additional insight regarding morality.Behavior Therapy Techniques Key interventions to behavioral therapy were developed from functional analysis which tackles issues lik e couple relationshipsÃ¢â¬â¢ intimacy, couplesÃ¢â¬â¢ forgiveness, continual pain, persistent distress, depression, substance misuse, obesity, and anxiety. Even issues commonly encountered by therapists, like client struggle, involuntary clients, and busy clients, have been tackled through functional analysis. Third Generation Behavior Therapy entails a group endorsing radical behaviorism and functional analysis and opposing cognitivisim.It involves: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); Behavioral Activation (BA); Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; Functional Analytic Psychotherapy; Dialectical behavior therapy; and Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is founded on Relational Frame Theory. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is founded upon functional analyses of therapeutic relationships. It focuses on therapeutic contexts and reverts to using in-session reinforcement.Behavioral Activation came from a constituent scrutiny of cognitive behavior therapy. It is founded upon a corresponding reinforcement model. Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy analyses the discrepancies between rule-governed and contingency-shaped behaviors. Such analysis is merged with a comprehensive evaluation of couplesÃ¢â¬â¢ association. References Wagner, K. V. (2009). Introduction to classical conditioning. Retrieved July 6th 2009 from, http://psychology. about. com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond. htm
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Sample details Pages: 20 Words: 6095 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Women in Management This paper looks at the issue of women in management within the financial services sector, focusing on high street banks in the United Kingdom, in the context of addressing the issue of gender discrimination within top management. This is done by looking at past and present published papers that revolve around the subject matter under a theoretical hypothesis. The theoretical hypothesis, which is based on published material on women in management, is used to explain the issues surrounding women in management. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Equal Opportunity Women | Management Dissertations" essay for you Create order Three high street banks were assessed as case studies to identify the issue of gender discrimination within UK banks. The outcomes are also categorised under specific themes. Finally a critical review of matches and mismatches is used to compare and contrast similarities between the theoretical hypothesis and the empirical evidence gathered for this paper. Chapter 1: The Concept of Women In Management Since the end of the Second World War, organisations all over the world have been slow to recognize the importance of women in the development and building of strong solid leadership from within. This has raised serious issues with regard to top management particularly within the financial services sectors, being male dominated, not allowing women into positions of authority, or top management. Although, organisations all over the world have moved on since then, and there have been positive results so far in todays modern day society, however the relative percentage of women in relation to men in top management positions still remains unsolved. In the United Kingdom, certain sectors seem to have made substantial progress with regard to addressing these issues, e.g. the financial sectors, and the health and social services. However, this is not the case across the whole spectrum of job sectors. E.g. the military, production services, distribution, Information and communication technology, and agriculture. Aims and Objectives The aim of this paper is to address the issue of top management, which is predominantly male dominated, within the financial services sector allowing and encouraging women to progress into management positions in their field of expertise. I.e. Understanding the problems associated with women breaking through the glass ceiling into top management within the financial services sector. The objective of this research is to first provide a detailed analysis of the theoretical aspects that women face when it comes to stepping into management positions within banks in the United Kingdom. Secondly, to understand the processes and mechanisms that are inherent within financial organisations that slowdown the pace of women into management positions. Thirdly, to highlight the issue of gender discrimination associated with the latter mentioned. Lastly, I will critically appraise the validity of published material so far covering women in management in the context of equal opportunity policies and flexible work patterns. Chapter 2: Existing Literature Reviewed Over the past 50 years gender inequalities i.e. women in management, particularly within the UK banking sector has been the subject of bureaucratic scrutiny to a certain degree. For example Crompton (1989)states that UK banks have increasingly become the major employers of female labour. However, women in banks have not historically had the same career opportunities as men, for a variety of reasons, ranging from deliberate male exclusion practices to the broken and often short-term nature of many womens work histories. Additionally, the contrast between the experiences of men and women in the same occupation is used to question the conventional view of occupational class analysis, where the (male) occupational structure is treated as if it were the class structure. Rutherfords (1999) case study of banking, also illustrates how the discourses of gendered biological and psychological difference might be used to justify the scarcity of women in management grades and in so doing reproduce the status quo of male domination. After all, if women were not suited to management in banking what would be the point of creating policies to attempt to improve their representation there? Thus jobs become infused with stereotyped characteristics, which are believed to be linked to gender, race (Liff and Dickens, 2000) and to some extent age. Alvesson and Billing (1997) talks about the pressures for homogeneity and cultural competent behaviour. This involves individuals, consciously or unconsciously, conforming and adapting to organisational norms in order to fit in or progress their careers, for example by adopting the expected and desired language, work style, appearance and so on. The demand for cultural competence reinforces and reproduces the dominant, from which those who do not comply, or conform, remain excluded. Collin son (1990) argues about the cultural assumptions underlying male managers stereotypes of male and female attributes. He states that when evaluating male candidates, involvement in sport was a definite advantage, whereas females sporting achievements we reread as indicative of a very narrow existence. Another example was behaviour of men which was described as pushy when exhibited by female candidate and as showing initiative when a male candidate was involved. Thus women were less likely to be recruited to what were viewed as gender-incongruent jobs. It must also be recognised that policy approaches, which focus on certain groups of employees most typically women and ethnic minorities, tend to engender employee resentment (Cockburn, 1991; Miller and Rowney, 1999). Webb (1997) adds that ironically the radical feminist agenda, which asserts womens differences from men and their potential for creating a better world, had been adapted to the concerns of liberal feminism with providing rationale for the promotion of women in management, on the grounds that womens nurturing capacities contribute to the diversity needed by post-modern organisations. Webb (1997) goes on to state that we need to move beyond the ultimately limiting debate about whether women are the same as or different from men to a renewed concern with the material conditions of womens lives and with the construction of equality initiatives which address the continuing exclusion of many women from adequate standards of living. Rees (1998) argues that relative strenuous efforts to tackle discrimination and disadvantage within the organisation are hampered by structural inequalities at societal level, in particular the interrelationship between education, training and employment. The continued existence of social inequalities could be said to indicate that as a society we are not yet ready to value gender diversity, or ethnic diversity, adopting the language will not make it happen. However, this should not be used as an excuse for organisational inertia or fatalism. Businesses have social responsibilities (one of these is to treat employees fairly) and they also have a need for social legitimacy in order to survive in the longer term (Miller and Rowney, 1999). This would point to need for organisations to value workforce diversity, irrespective of the purchase of short-term solutions. Sisson (1995) also adds that the problem with regard to women in management within the UK banking industry is that most organisations are predominantly concerned with the bottom line, short-term profitability and this orientation militates against long-term agendas. This renders it all the more important that the retrograde step of abandoning or neglecting equal opportunity policy should be avoided. Dickens (1994) argues that there is not a business case but a series of business rationales that are contingent. Organizational and managerial receptiveness to them is uneven, and they lead to only selective action. He goes on to state that the business case carrot shares a similar weakness to the legal compliance stick. Calls for action beyond the individual organisation in a multi-pronged approach requiring state action, in which equality legislation and business case rationales each have apart to play. Chapter 3: Research Approach and Methodology Employed Research Approach The research approach will be carried out using the positivist case research approach. According to Cavite (1996), positivist epistemology tries to understand a social setting by identifying individual components of a phenomenon and explains the phenomenon in terms of constructs and relationships between constructs. The theoretical constructs describing the phenomenon are considered to be distinct from empirical reality. Hence, empirical observations can be used to test theory. This looks at the world as external and objective. Positivism employs four major research evaluation criteria: a good research should make controlled observations, should be able to be replicated should be generalizable and should use formal logic. Under positivism, case research findings are not statistically generalizable to a population, as the case or cases cannot be considered representative of a population, however, case research can claim theoretical generalizability. This will also include comparing, contrasting and critically evaluating past and present papers, articles, journals, and established theories that have been published on the subject matter. Methodology Employed Multiple-Case Study Design This project uses the multiple case study method in order to enable analysis of data across cases and relating it to the theoretical perspectives in the available literature of Information systems strategy. This enables the researcher to verify that findings are not merely the result of idiosyncrasies of research setting (Miles andHuberman, 1984). According to Yin (1994), in such a method it is important to use: multiple sources of evidence. Due to the time constraint attached with this paper, only three case studies of Women in management within the UK banking sector were gathered. The appropriate number of cases depends, firstly, on how much is known about the phenomenon after studying a case and secondly, on how much new information is likely to emerge from studying further cases(Eisenhardt, 1997). The paper provides three case studies of UK high street banks namely HSBC, NatWest Bank, and Lloyds TSB. Comparing and contrasting the roles of the women who are in the top management in these banks. Qualitative Data Cavite (1996) states that qualitative investigation refers to distilling meaning and understanding from a phenomenon and is not primarily concerned with measuring and quantification of the phenomenon. Direct and in-depth knowledge of a research setting are necessary to achieve contextual understanding. Hence, qualitative methods are associated with face-to-face contact with persons in the research setting, with verbal data being gathered. Qualitative data can be collected in a number of forms. One major form of qualitative evidence is interviews, which may be recorded and later transcribed. Qualitative data are rich, full, holistic real their face validity seems impeachable; they preserve chronological flow where that is important. In spite of the above mentioned, qualitative data have weaknesses (Miles1979; Miles and Huberman, 1984). Collecting and analysing data is time-consuming and demanding. In addition, data analysis is not easy, as qualitative data analysis methods are not well established. Recognised rules of logic can be applied to verbal data in order to make sense of the evidence and to formally analyse the data. Rubin and Rubin (1995) state that it is most desirable to disclose the identities of both the case and the individuals interviewed because, The reader is able to recall any other previous information he or she may have learned about the same case from previous research or other sources in reading and interpreting the case report. The entire case can be reviewed more readily, so that footnotes and citations can be checked, if necessary, and appropriate criticisms can be raised about the published case. Nevertheless, there are some occasions when anonymity is necessary. The most common rationale is that when the case study has been on controversial topic, anonymity serves to protect the real case and its real participants. The second reason is that the issuance of the final case report may affect the subsequent actions of those that were studied. In the case of this paper, the positions of the participants within the organisations interviewed are mentioned. However, anonymity is adopted to protect the Identities of the participants and the real case. Why? Because the issue of women in management within Banks in the UK has been a long standing problem, in which revealing their names could hinder future revelations on their part and their jobs. The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows: Chapter 4: Theoretical Hypothesis on Women in Management Chapter 5: Empirical Analysis (Three Banks) Chapter 6: Comparing and contrasting Theoretical Hypothesis and Empirical Analysis Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusion. Chapter 4: Theoretical Hypothesis of Women In Management In order to have a clear understanding of women in management, we will first need to identify the meaning attached to this phenomenon. Since the mid 1990s, womens representation amongst executives has doubled and amongst company directors it has tripled. At the same time there has been an overall increase in women working in management jobs. However, women still comprise less than a quarter of executives and only one in ten company directors. The glass ceiling, the situation where women can see but not reach higher level jobs and so are prevented from progressing in their careers, appears still to exist in many organisations. This is what led to the creation of the terminology women in management. Several key factors account for the continuing low representation of women in management. Firstly, like most other occupations, there is a tendency for some types of management jobs to be associated with either women or men. For example, whilst women are comparatively well represented in personnel and the public sector, men still predominate in production management and Information and communication technology. Secondly, opportunities to work part-time are limited, with only six present of managers and senior officials employed part-time. Although it may be difficult to carry out some management functions on a part-time basis, there are still far too few opportunities for flexible working at senior levels in organisations. With this in mind, we can now move on to discuss the theoretical perspectives of women in management. There are several already established theoretical perspectives that have been used to gather a better understanding of this issue, however, the ones used in this paper are: 1) Issues and problems facing women reaching the top (manager) 2) Why so few women reaching the top? 3) Why are women workers still going cheap? 4) What causes the gender pay gap? 5) Have women achieved equality in the UK banking industry? 4.1 Issues and problems facing women reaching the top (manager) Several factors account for the continuing low representation of women reaching the top. One of the key issues is that women consider family obligations and the predominance of male values in corporate culture to be the main obstacles to career advancement for them. The nature of the obstacles blocking womens progress to higher management varies, however, from those encountered at lower levels. Higher ranking female bank managers seem to experience discrimination to a greater extent, both on terms of structural and cultural barriers, where insufficient personal contacts and dominance of male values adversely affect their advancement. The difficulties women face in reaching the top is also reflected in the higher levels of education and effort often demanded of them. The hurdles facing women aspiring to management jobs can be so formidable that they sometimes abandon efforts to make it to the top of large firms. They often take their energy and know-how to smaller and more flexible companies or set up their own businesses. Another principal constraint on the level and type of labour market participation of women is the responsibility they carry for raising children and performing household tasks. An important feature of professional and especially managerial work is the extended working hours that seem to be required to gain recognition and eventual promotion. It can be practically impossible to reconcile the long hours often required of management staff with the amount of time needed to care for a home and children, not to mention care of the elderly. Yet the availability of part-time managerial work varies across organisations. Women who desire both a family and a career often juggle heavy responsibilities in both domains. Those who opt for part-time work early in their careers may find their advancement hampered, even after a return to full-time employment, since their male counterparts will have invested heavily in career building during the same period. 4.2 Why so few women reaching the top? Few women gain access to the highest positions as executive heads of organizations and, despite some improvements, many would claim that the pace of change is still far too slow given the large number of qualified women in the labour market today. Where figures are available (ILO data, 2002), they show women holding from 1 present to 5percent of top executive positions. While it must be acknowledged that time is still needed for women at junior and middle management levels(those in the pipeline) to move into executive positions, the fact still remains that women are not moving quickly enough nor insufficient numbers into line or strategic positions. Yet this factories crucial for enlarging the pool of women aspiring to senior positions and for building a critical mass of senior women for networking and providing role models for those down the line. Speeding up womens movement towards the top requires that recruitment and promotion methods be objective and fair. Above all, there has to be awareness and commitment from directors of companies as to the benefits for their organizations from promoting women to high-level managerial positions. Women seem to experience the most difficulty in obtaining executive jobs in large corporations, even though they often have greater opportunities at junior and middle management levels in these same corporations. Another reason for this purge is the educational attainment required for top management positions. Evidence provided byte Equal opportunities Commission in the United Kingdom suggest that, in some cases women do not have the educational qualifications to get into management positions, and even when that is not the case, they still do find it hard to break into management, due to the fact that its predominantly male dominated. Another reason is that few senior women are in the so called line positions that involve profit and loss or revenue generating responsibilities, and which are critical for advancement to the highest level. Additionally, in the United Kingdom, the share of women among financial managers rose from 11 present to 17percent in the 1980s and still increasing, although they are still outnumbered by men in top management positions in the 21st century. 4.3 Why are women workers still going cheap? Much of womens work has historically tended to be undervalued or unrecognized. While the United Nations system and governments are making more systematic efforts to value and account for womens work in national statistics, research on women in management is a relatively new field and comparisons over time and across countries are limited. This is further made complicated by the range of definitions employed and the non-availability of statistics for different countries overtime. Under a report provided by the United Nations in 1996 called the Human development report, it states that no society treats its women as well as men. A gender related development index was created to record achievements and monitor progress. This is based on life expectancy, educational attainment and income, but adjusts the latter mentioned for gender equality. They noted that life expectancy rates are positively affected by care in different forms, such as social support and social relationships. For example, unmarried adults have higher mortality rates than married ones and, according to them, children in a caring environment fare better in terms of health than those who lack this attention. It is not only the weak and sick that need care to prosper; even the healthiest of adults need a certain amount of care. A deficit in care services not only destroys human development, but it also undermines economic growth. That these factors are overlooked has considerable implications for gender equality, as women still carry the main responsibility for care. Gender discrimination is perpetuated through the lack of value placed on womens caring role in society. As managers, women are affected byte common assumption that in the event of building families they will bear the main burden of responsibility arising out of this. Thus, there is not the same degree of investment in women. They are less likely to receive the same encouragement or career advice through mentoring as men. Another important factor is that in some countries equal opportunity policies tend to be established within organizations, however, in some countries they are not strictly adhered to. In the Ukase scheme known as Opportunity 2000 was launched in 2000. Its member included 300 organizations ranging from the financial services to the educational departments. They agreed to increase the number of women into management positions, and between 1994 to 2000, womens share of management positions increased from 25 present to 35 present. Therefore, one can say although women are still going cheap in certain jobs in other parts of the world this is not the case universally. 4.4 What causes the gender pay gap? A difference in management positions does tend to contribute to earnings differentials. Although rates of pay may be similar, actual earnings can vary because of the different salary packages offered to managers, which provide various fringe benefits and access to certain schemes for boosting bonuses. Earnings gaps may also reflect differences in seniority and concentration of women in low-paid managerial sub-groups. Additionally, certain jobs tend to be affiliated with men and to women, i.e. productions and manufacturing jobs tend to be affiliated with men, while nursing, and household jobs tend to be affiliated with women, this contributes to the pay gap between men and women. Within the Banking sector in the United Kingdom, there has been an increase of the number of women into both middle and top management. However, the positions they tend to head are not profit-making positions or revenue generating positions, which are positions of higher pay and responsibility. They tend to be based within the retail, customer services, and bookkeeping departments, which are areas of significance to the organization, but are of less repute. 4.5 Have women achieved equality in the UK banking industry? In the area of finance, women have certainly increased their share of management positions, although at a varying pace. In the United Kingdom, the share of women among financial managers rose from 11 present to 17 present during the 1980s and at the turn of the century increased to 25 present. While women have captured an ever-increasing share of the labour market, improvements in the quality of womens jobs have not kept pace. This is reflected in the smaller representation of women in management positions, particularly in the private sector, and their virtual absence from most senior jobs, i.e. Directorships, or Presidents of Banks. Wage differentials in male and female managerial jobs stem from the reality that even when women hold management jobs, they are often in less strategic lower-paying areas oaf companys operations. They are also linked to the fact that women managers tend to be younger on average, as most senior jobs tend to be dominated by older men. Despite the persistent inequalities at managerial level, the continuous entry of women into higher-level jobs is being addressed; however, they still remain under-represented in senior management. With few exceptions, the main challenge appears tube the sheer slowness in the in the progress of women into senior leadership positions in organizations, which suggests that discrimination is greatest where the most power is exercised. However, the growth in entrepreneurship and increasing numbers of women running their own businesses, both large and small, heralds a different future for societies. The economic power gained by women will play a key role in the struggle to sweep aside gender inequalities in all walks of life in which the UK banking sector is no exception. Chapter 5: Empirical Analysis In this chapter I present (3)case descriptions from my research on Women in management within the Banking Sector. The descriptions are organised in terms of the following headings; Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience, the position of women in the financial industry in general, the position of women in the UK banking sector, the changing role of women in the UK banking sector, pay differentials, women broken through glass ceiling, employment law and maternity right, and balancing work and family responsibilities. Due to the short timespan to collect data and incorporate to this paper I have been limited to three UK high street banks. The names of the individuals interviewed are not mentioned to protect confidentiality. It must be said that there are some differences in the both the quality and quantity of data available between the cases described, but in each case there is sufficient data for comparability across the features mentioned above. Women managers or the most senior of positions with regard to women in the three high street banks are analysed to address the issue of women in management. See Appendix A for the questions used. All interviews lasted approximately 40 minutes. 5.1 Case Study 1: Natwest Bank Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience The Woman interviewed was the manager of the branch. She is responsible for 25 people in the branch. She argues that in the past there were no female managers, most women, were household wives and lacked career progression. She believes that a lot has changed over the past 20 years and that within the bank a lot of progress has been made with regard to women into management positions. Additionally, she states that there is a continuing need to have women in management positions because it depicts the bank as being an equal opportunities bank. The position of women in the financial industry in general She argues that they are a lot more women in Finance ministries, central banks, and banking supervisory agencies, which are among the most important political institutions with regard to the coordination and regulation of the financial system than the case maybe in the past. The position of women in UK banking sector She states that although there has been a huge increase in the number of women in management positions within the bank, relative to male managers, it is small percentage that are in this category compared to over 50 years ago. The changing role of women in the UK banking sector She believes that the role of women in the bank has changed over the years. In the past women within the bank were more concentrated in the retail department, but more and more women are going into the trading of stocks and products which are revenue generating departments within the bank. Pay Differential She states categorically, that she is quite happy and content with how much she is being paid and comparing herself to her male counterpart sat other branches of the bank, there isnt a difference with regard other pay package (its the same). Women broken through glass ceiling She believes that within NatWest bank the case of women breaking through the glass ceiling is not an issue. As far as she is concerned if you have the right qualifications and attributes, you will make it through regardless of gender differences. Employment law and Maternity right She argues that there are policies within the bank that ensures equal opportunities for both male and female employees to get into top management. And that women are encouraged to take maternity leave if needs be, and when they are ready to come back to their previous position the job would still be there. Flexible part-time work is available for those who fall under this category she says. Balancing work and Family For the hours she works, it could affect family life being the manager of the branch, however, for the top directors within the bank the want staff to have a good work and family life balance. They do encourage women, if they need to go out on maternity leave and come back to their previous job. 5.2 Case Study 2: Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience The Woman interviewed was the branch counsellor (Customer services/accounts); she is the most senior woman (retail). She is responsible for 5 people. She argues that in the Bank there were few female managers compared to their male counterparts. Although she believes a lot has changed over the years with regard to women getting into management positions, she states that due to the lack of proper qualifications and starting a family, women have not in general been able to move into management positions. The position of women in financial industry in general She argues that there are not enough women in the financial industry. She acknowledges that there have been improvements but that there is still barrier. The position of women in the UK banking sector She believes that only the determined ones (women) get through. However, from heron knowledge of the bank, there are not a lot of women in top management positions. The changing role of women in the UK banking sector The branch counsellor states that when a woman says she works in a bank it would be depicted that she works as a secretary. This is due to the lack of qualifications and top management being male dominated, the role of women within the bank has remained static. Pay Differential She states that there are certain grades within the bank and each and every person is categorised into one of those grades. The salary band is applied in that manner. She states that for the job responsibilities, she is quite content and happy with what she is being paid, however there is still need for improvement. Women broken through glass ceiling She argues that there is a glass ceiling within the bank and women can only go so far. She adds that women tend to leave to have children and look after the home. Also, she says that there are gender diversity policies within the bank, but they are not adhered to from top management. Employment law and maternity right Within the bank there is policy that allows for part-time flexible work patterns. Legally, they have to keep the position for you, if for example you left to have baby. Personally she wont give up her job because she has a baby, she would hope to return and get it back in due course. Balancing work and family She suggests that staff within the bank have the option to balance family and work, if they wanted to take leave and come back there is a policy in the bank that states that top management would need to accommodate this. 5.3 Case Study 3: Lloyds TSB The woman interviewed was the branch manager and majority of what she had to say (98%) in relation to the questions asked tallied with what the branch manager at NatWest bank stated. The case studies mentioned in the above sections provides much needed evidence of the way women in management, particularly within the Banking sector are treated. This includes organizational policies which top management need to adhere to for gender diversity. Reasons for this stem from the fact that different methodologies and approach are regarded as best practice by top management in financial organisations, than one would anticipate. Therefore, it is notable that within two of the organisations mentioned, women in management is not an issue, while just one HSBC claims that there is an issue which needs to be addressed. Chapter 6: Critical Analysis of Theoretical Hypothesis and Empirical Evidence The critical analysis in this chapter covers all aspects relating to the theoretical hypothesis of women in management from published books and articles, and the empirical evidence presented in the previous chapter. An analysis is made as to whether there is any consistency from the published material so far gathered and the empirical evidence presented. One could say that there are certain consistencies with regard to the theory presented and the evidence gathered and a number of inconsistencies. For example, within HSBC bank, the fact that there Isa low representation of women in top management accounts for the fact that there are no female role models within the bank for women to look up to. Also, the fact that education plays an important role in reaching top management, the Branch manager at HSBC was right, in saying lack of qualifications played a part in women reaching top management positions. Additionally, if pregnant, women would need to take maternity leave to have a child. This correlates with why few women reach the top. All the women acknowledge that there has been progress made with regard to more women reaching top management however; they state that the progress is slow. This is due to certain types of jobs affiliated to women and men. Most women managers can be found in less strategic jobs(i.e. retail positions) with less pay; comparing with the jobs which are male dominated, who tend to be in more profit generating positions and hence better pay. From the perspective of the being a branch manager two of the women felt content with what they were being paid, which does not correlate with the theoretical hypothesis of a gender pay gap. Lastly, in relation to women breaking through the glass ceiling, the theoretical hypothesis on this does correlate with what the highest-ranking female at HSBC said i.e. there is a problem with regard to women reaching the top. While at the other two banks, they claim it is not an issue. Although, one has used the theoretical hypothesis so far published and analysed matches or mismatches with regard to the three high street banks, there is no guarantee that in a few years time, the same situation with the three women at the banks mentioned, would still be the case. People change, policies change and we as human beings are constantly evolving, so one should take this as a trend overtime, rather than as fact. Summary and Conclusion This paper has looked at past and present published paper on Women in Management particularly within the financial services sector in the UK. Theoretical hypothesis such as issues and problems facing women reaching the top, why so few women reaching the top, why are women workers still going cheap, what causes gender pay gap, and have women achieved equality in UK banking industry are used to categorize published facts about the subject matter. We have used a positivist approach for the case study design method to carry out case study analysis. Qualitative data analysis is the method used to gather empirical evidence in this paper. Three high street banks in the United Kingdom, is used as case studies to gather empirical evidence on women in management. The information gathered was categorized under the following headings, continuity and change in womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience, the position of women in the financial industry in general, the position of women in the UK banking sector, the changing role of women in the UK banking sector, pay differential, women broken through glass ceiling, employment law and maternity right, and balancing work and family. Finally, an analysis of both the theoretical hypothesis and the empirical evidence gathered were critically analysed to identify any matches or mismatches between the latter mentioned. Women in management is a very new topic in the 21stcentury. We as humans are constantly evolving and new issues are always being raised; it is therefore worthwhile to state that the information provided in this paper is bound to change in a few years within the banks mentioned. However, from a critical perspective we can see that the theoretical hypothesis presented here is one that needs further in-depth investigation ranging from cultural differences to inbuilt norms within these banks, which indirectly affect women being able to progress in top management. This will obviously be the responsibility of various government bodies and top management within these banks to be able to develop sound policies that would need to be strictly adhered to in order to tackle such an issue. Putting all this in mind there are theoretical issues that would need to be formally developed with accuracy within the concept of women in management. Concepts such as Equal employment policies, gender review pay packages across financial banks, discriminatory regulatory, gender protection policies, and the encouragement of women to attain higher educational qualifications are concepts that both the government and executive management need to look at more closely in order to derive the potential and talent that women across the world have that would eventually lead to the progress and goals of banks or any organisation as a whole.
Monday, December 30, 2019
Symphony No. 4 in F Minor by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky CHAPTER 1 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 1 CHAPTER 2 SYMPHONY IN F MINOR: PERSONAL LISTENING 4 CHAPTER 3 SYMPHONY IN F MINOR: GENERAL INFO AND DISCUSSION 6 FIRST MOVEMENT 6 SECOND MOVEMENT 7 THIRD MOVEMENT 8 FOURTH MOVEMENT 8 OVERALL EFFECT 9 WORKS CITED 11 CHAPTER BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, the Viatka District in Russia on May 7, 1840 to a Russian miner and a mother of French origin. During his early life, Tchaikovsky did receive some musical training from a French governess in the form of piano lessons, but the training did not continue. As a young child, Tchaikovskys family moved to St. Petersburg becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It was in this position that he started to compose. He began by composing some minor overtures, quartets, and one large symphony. In 1866 that he suffered from his first nervous breakdown brought on the stress of overwork on his First Symphony. His early works were to include two other symphonies, the violin concerto, and the Piano Concerto in B flat Minor. During his years in Moscow, Tchaikovsky was able to teach, compose, write, travel, and associate with other composers of the time. With one of those, Balakirev, a member of a group of Russian composers known as the Five, he formed a close friendship, and from him he gained the idea for the fantasy overture Romeo and Juliet. But the relationship between him and the Five soured, and he even later parodied in one of ballets their use of certain folk melodies over and over again. Although Tchaikovsky was enjoying life in Moscow among his composer friends, he found himself constantly in periods of deep depressions and unhappiness. The largest contributor to his bouts of depression and sadness was his self-hatred and guilt that he had from carrying a heavy secret: Tchaikovsky was gay. In 1876, Tchaikovsky entered into a correspondence relationship with a wealthy widow, Madame Nedezhda von Meck, who was an admirer of his music. First off, she merely commissioned works for him to compose andShow MoreRelatedIntroduction to Oboe and Bassoon3379 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesrefined sound and style of playing, it took up a permanent place in the orchestra. Classical period brought upon an oboe whose bore was gradually narrowed, and the instrument became outfitted with several keys, among them were those for the notes D#, F, and G#. A key similar to the modern octave key was also added called the Ã¢â¬Å"slur keyÃ¢â¬ . It was used more like the Ã¢â¬Å"flickÃ¢â¬ keys on the modern German Bassoon. Only later did French instrument makers redesign the octave key to be used in the manner of theRead MoreDisney Golden Age Of Animation2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthematically. It was a visual interpretation of the structure of the music- gestural renderings of dynamics and tempo- With children, fast when the music goes fast, moving up and downÃ¢â¬ ¦ 3.Toccata and Fugue in D Minor by Johan Sebastian Bach a)The Toccata and Fugue in D minor is a piece of organ music written,according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. Its time of origin, narrowed down depending on author, lies between c.1704 and the 1750s. b)Live-action
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Football Versus Baseball Multiple sports have concepts in common, but not identical principles. All sports require hard work and dedication, but not all sports require a ball. Another big difference in sports is the regulation changes from the professional leagues to high school leagues. Sports variations in high school also depend on the size of high school that you attend. Football and baseball in high school have their similarities, but definitely have their variations specific to the game. Football and baseball have their differences in many different ways. The first obvious modification is the equipment. Baseball requires a baseball glove, batting gloves, a bat, and a helmet. Football demands shoulder pads, thigh pads, kneepads, a tail pad, hip pads, a helmet, and a mouth guard. Another difference is the rules and regulations, including season dates and lengths. Baseball is played in the spring and football is played in the fall. High school football games consist of four-ten minute quarters wh ile high school baseball games are seven innings. This makes football a much more physically grueling sport, and requires more physical intensity. Also, the ball that is used for each sport is different. A baseball is a white, round ball that has a specifically aligned seam that runs throughout. This seam is red and helps to improve ball control. The size of a baseball is 9.00-9.25 inches in circumference, making it easy to grip in one hand for a high schoolShow MoreRelatedSimilarities And Differences Between Softball And Baseball1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessoftball players while others consider themselves baseball players. Ã Is there a difference? Both sports are very similar as they both require four bases, the shape of a diamond, a glove, a bat, a ball, innings, three outs, and nine players. Softball and baseball may sound identical in nature, but they have tremendous contrast while maintaining the same concept. Although there is no law against men or boys playing softball and women or girls playing baseball, Ã the two games are associated to be based onRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Baseball And Softball784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBaseball and softball are both competitive sports that have been around for many years. Baseball was invented in 1839 and softball followed in 1887. While both sports are similar, the differences over ride the battle. People see the difference between softball and baseball when both sports comes down to mechanics and visual things, but what they do not see is the difference in the players emotions. In these sports, both runners can steal bases and are allowed to run on the dropped third strikeRead MoreBaseball Is A Man s Sport921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesothers. In the world of sports there are in most cases a menÃ¢â¬â¢s version of a sport, and a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s version of a sport, like fastpitch softball and baseball. Softball and baseball are similar sports, both use the same items to do the same job. Each individual player uses a ball, glove, helmet, bat, and cleats to accomplish the goals to play the games of softball and baseball. The goals are to have more runs than the other team at the end of the game. However, these two sports are not exactly alike likeRead MoreA Game Of Balls And Bats911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSimilar Sports This is a game of balls and bats played by two teams, each consisting of nine players. The object is to score runs by hitting a fair ball with the bat. The field is a diamond shape with bases in each corner with an order of first, second, third, and home. After the ball is hit, the runner runs counterclockwise around the bases. When a batter gets to home plate, a point is scored. The batter waits at home plate to receive a pitch from the opposing teamÃ¢â¬â¢s pitcher. The pitcher is setRead MoreBaseball Vs Softball Essay983 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbattle between sexes has been a lifelong battle both sexes are often fighting. One sex often tries to one-up the other. A great example of that is Baseball and Softball. Baseball and softball are both competitive sports for males and females at any age. If you were to ask a Baseball player which sport he thinks is harder, he would generally say Baseball. However, if you ask a softball player which sport she thinks is harder, she will genera lly say softball. Both are skill requiring sports. They alsoRead MoreBaseball And Softball Are The Victim Of It Essay1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesit. Logistically, baseball and softball are different sports although they seem very similar. Confusing them as the same sport seems innocent enough, until you truly begin to understand the differences and why they exist. It is nationally understood that baseball is for boys and softball is for girls. The girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ sport is baseball, but softer. It is meant to be easier and less complicated than baseball. The difference between a baseball and a softball is three inches (Rules of Sport). It is amazingRead MoreDifference Between Baseball And Softball1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDifficulty of Baseball vs. Softball What sport do you think is harder baseball or softball? The reasons baseball is a harder sport is because of the tempo, the strength of players, and the size of the field that the players play on. The innings in baseball are played at a very fast pace, but the game is also two innings longer. The athletes that play baseball are also much stronger and faster. Lastly, in the sport of baseball, the average field size is 400 feet, and the average field in softballRead MoreSoftball And Baseball Have The Same Concept919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSoftball and Baseball have the same concept, but many differences between them. They are sports that a person really have to focus on to fully understand what to do next, and how to make the next play. Although both of these sports include a bat and a ball their techniques, equipment, and rules differ. The techniques for softball are pretty different compared to baseball. First, pitching Softball players pitch underhanded with a wind up. Because they pitch underhanded, their pitches are not asRead MoreWhy Baseball Is the Most Difficult Sport Essay examples1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOut of all the vast variety of sports there are, baseball is the most challenging and difficult sport to play. No other sport compares to the degree of difficulty that you have to deal with, like you do in playing the game of baseball. There are so many different elements that make this game the most difficult. Three major elements stick out in my mind as to why this wonderful sport is the toughest of all. The three main factors in my mind are the increased physical and hand eye coordination componentRead MoreDifferences Between Football And Sports1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFootball is a sport that is highly regarded all around the globe. The sport has immense popularity where the UEFA Champions League final attracts an estimated of 350 million viewers each year]. Football has had great success globally where there is an estimated of 250 million Football players worldwide]. Despite the sportÃ¢â¬â¢s tremendous influence and popularity, various countries have found it difficult to integrate Football as a regularly played sport, and two notable countries are the United States
Friday, December 13, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"I have never been the same person alone that I am with people. Ã¢â¬ (Phillip Roth) I can directly relate with this quote, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure quite a few people can. So often, we act differently in private than we do with others. We will write a custom essay sample on Interpersonal Communication Application Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Of course, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all dependent upon who the Ã¢â¬ËothersÃ¢â¬â¢ are. For example, we may feel more comfortable being our true selves with our friends and become more reserved with colleagues. This is not necessarily how all humans behave, some folks have no problem being exactly who they are at all times no matter whose company they are in. I admire this quality when it is not coming from someone I perceive as obnoxious. Certainly, factors such as perception, culture, and the people we are communicating with will influence how we behave in public as opposed to private. Most immediately, I think how we perceive ourselves and how we think other people perceive us will influence our behavior in given situations. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all so different and our experiences tend to shape our personalities. Some of us are naturally outgoing and social, while others are more introverted and feel best without the company of others. Both scenarios present their own challenges and behaviors will be influenced by these tendencies. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s generally very easy and preferred for the introverted personality to go through their day without the company of another, while a more extroverted individual might feel very lonely without anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. How these two behave in group functions will also vary. The outgoing individual will be very much in his element, and more likely to be cheerful and positive. An introverted person will be more shy and standoffish within the group. These are merely characteristics that go together, as presented in the book under the implicit personality theory. In either case, the behavior of the individual will vary whether they are alone or with people. And this scenario is a more natural occurrence. Sometimes situations arise where we want others to see us as something we are not and weÃ¢â¬â¢ll present ourselves in a certain manner that is not true to who we are, just to fit in or gain the trust of that particular group. When alone, we may let ourselves behave more naturally and feel less obliged to pretend. Cultures also influence how we behave in public and alone. Some cultures do not allow women to be in public without a headdress, while at home they are allowed to be more relaxed. In our American culture, Christianity teaches that women should be submissive to their husbands, so behaviors will exemplify this in a church setting or when out with church friends. At home, the wife may be the one who makes the final decisions, and the family will behave as such in that particular setting. Finally, the people with which we are communicating will impact what we say and how we say it. We communicate very differently when alone with our romantic partner, as opposed to being with him or her in public. The same is true for our relationships with parents, siblings, neighbors, casual friends or close friends. The words we choose and the tone that we use with any of these communications will vary from person to person and in private or amongst others. Every situation is completely unique. As a novelist, Phillip Roth presented many fine quotes with regard to communication. It was a good exercise to apply what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned from the text and be able to expand upon this particular quotation. How to cite Interpersonal Communication Application Paper, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Depending on ones point of view, reconstruction was both a success and a failure. But overall, it was successful. Reconstruction was successful in meeting its basic goals of returning the South to the Union and increasing economic, political, religious and social freedoms and citizenship for former slaves. All the former slave states pledged loyalty to the U.S. Government, drafted new state constitutions and acknowledged the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments. However, reconstruction was a failure in that, despite initial successes, creating and maintaining civil rights for African-Americans was difficult to achieve.The successes of reconstruction were many as it gave African-Americans the ability (right) to participate in all levels of government, attend public school, establish institutions such as churches and schools and their own families, acquire land of their own and achieve full civil rights enshrined in our constitution. In short, reconstruction established a new democracy where all people, black and white, are equal. Despite these successes, reconstruction failed many federal and state governments failed African-Americans because they didnt secure the rights guaranteed them by constitutional amendments. Some failures of reconstruction are the failure to preserve black-white voter alliances that were necessary to maintain if political change were to be effected, Radical Republican governments didnt (werent able to) allow needed land reform that would have provided former slaves needed economic resources to break their cycle of poverty, racial bias against African-Americans nationally was rampant, the Supreme Court ruled that most civil rights were ruled to be state rights and therefore, unprotected by the 14th amendment, the 15th amendment was determined not to grant voting rights to anyone, but rather to restrict certain types of voter discrimination and former slaves, in spite of and at the end of reconstruction, found themselves at the bottom rung of society as second-class citizens. Reconstruc tion, despite all the good it brought to former slaves, can be seen as a failure because in many ways they were still slaves: slaves to poverty, to a court system that didnt allow for blacks to sit as jurors where whites were on trial), to uncertain economic futures for themselves and their families (e.g. , sharecropping, shut out on land sales), to anti-progressive legislation meant to reverse rights to African-Americans and to the those who wished to inflict pain and suffering on them (i.e., they wished to repudiate the results of the war). All this showed that some of the greatest successes of the reconstruction era were also its greatest failuresÃ¢â¬âslavery has many names (e.g., apprenticeships, convict leasing).But, despite all the failures (horrors) of reconstruction, the success most important was that African-Americans never fully returned to slavery. It is on this foundation that I consider reconstruction a success. Without this, our nation wouldnt have survived as one nation.The legacy of the reconstruction is immense. It drastically changed the lives and societies in the South as they had to change to adjust to the emancipation of slaves. Reconstructions legacy is not necessarily a pretty one as after reconstruction, the South became solidly Democratic. The Democrats, once in full control, did away with many social programs, decreased expenses and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers. As a result, white Southerners became a powerful political force for many decades to come both in the South and nationally. Sharecropping became a way to make a living by many for many former slaves. Also, the crop lien system held a tight hold over African-American farm production. Both sharecropping and the crop lien system held African-Americans back economically. After discrimination became illegal, segregationÃ¢â¬âseparate but equalÃ¢â¬âbecame the practice in the South to keep African-Americans separate from whites.But, I believe the biggest legacy of the era of reconstruction is on the effect it had on politics of the South. Looming large in seemingly every serious political conversation was the thought of Federal interference in the lives of white Southerners. Wanting more control over their state (local) affairs, Republican state governments in the South were soon replaced with Democrats. Democrats used reconstruction, with its many horrors that brought unwanted change to the South, they reasoned, was used as a tool for changing as many things as they could (back) to the ways they liked. The southern politicians who acted along these, of course, acted nominally for the good of the South, but in reality, banded together with other like-minded politicians, to work for their own incentives to create wealth for themselves and favored others. African-Americans did not flourish as intended after reconstruction ended. In the years following reconstruction, true freedom for African-Americans was not yet a reality. It took nearly a century for America to once-again combat racial inequality. As a result of politics shaping, encouraging, condoning and/or permitting laws, customs, thoughts, traditions, etc. that forbade, did not enable, did not permit, etc. African-Americans to advance as many had hoped they would under reconstruction, many became disillusioned, remained poor and seemingly forgotten in America.Thankfully, the thoughts of African-Americans that they played a huge part on freeing themselves was carried with them as a collective struggle for survival, as seeds to use for future success. The legacy of reconstruction is seen here because of the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments. They were the seeds that blossomed in the Constitution as it was rewritten by the inclusion of the amendments in it. All should work to ensure the Constitution is enforced as written. To quote Fannie Lou Hamer, a Civil Rights Activist from Ruleville, Mississippi, speaking before Congress in 1965, correctly spoke of the struggle for freedom when she said, Nobodys free until everybodys free. As to the legacy of reconstruction, I believe the most important lessons of reconstruction is that it reminds all of us that our Constitutional rights are not self-e nforcing, and we should never take our liberties for granted. Nothing is inevitable or predetermined in our lives. We must be vigilant in ever-securing our equality and freedom.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
An Inconvenient Truth: Review Essay Reaction Paper: An Inconvenient Truth The documentary, An Inconvenient Truth, by Al Gore is an eye opener and also a w ake up call for me. I have heard about global warming before, probably back in g rade school but I knew a little about it or I only knew the meaning of the term global warming. The documentary gave me a deeper understanding of what global wa rming really is and what will be the consequences if we do not do something abou t it. The way the documentary is presented is very effective. Al Gore defined an d described global warming in a way a non-science-loving-environmentalist-geek w ould understand. Most likely, that would be the reason why it won so many awards . The documentary showed the basic process of global warming which is the greenhou se gases are trapping the suns heat in the earths atmosphere which makes the e arth warm. The greenhouse gases are caused by producing too much CO2. When Al Go re compared the old and new photos of the same place, the difference was very ob vious. I can clearly see that the glaciers are starting to melt. Al Gore also sh owed graphs and charts showing that every year the production of CO2 is getting higher also earths temperature is getting warmer. Other nations are trying to do something about global warming. Most national gov ernments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an a mendment to the international treaty on climate change, assigning mandatory emis sion limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nations. We will write a custom essay sample on An Inconvenient Truth: Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on An Inconvenient Truth: Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on An Inconvenient Truth: Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The objective of the protocol is the stabilization of greenhouse gas co ncentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropog enic interference with the climate system. Unfortunately, United States did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol even if they are the country with the highest producti on or emission of CO2. It is just too sad that some US officials are ignoring an d neglecting the global warming issue for the sake of progress. They are too con cerned about power and